Party ideology, trying somehow to fill the resulting vacuum of faith, was feverishly to develop new and historic landmarks – introduced the concept of multi-movement from socialism to communism – undeveloped, developed, highly socialism. Out of caution warned that a lot of steps and the end of the stairs until you see it. But this idea is not palliative calm and reassuring – it almost did not react. Since the mid 60-ies most psychological atmosphere form stable double-think: with all sorts of stands and chairs were pronounced communist spell them quietly listened, applauded the team, if required – was repeated, but it's acquired the character of the usual congestion of the ritual, which have to be carried – by a deep-rooted habit or fear of incurring the wrath of the authorities. At home, the kitchen, in a private circle, said another. The current The situation demanded action to find a solution.
Forces, which came to power in a coup within the party in 1964, saw the beginning of a return to 'doottepelnym' orders. But the 'taste of freedom', which people have inhaled over the past decade, was – the first time in forty years since the destruction of open opposition to the regime, the country began to rise in defense of the movement more or less democratic freedoms that were won in years 'Thaw' against 'rollback' to the Stalinist past, it has been called 'dissidents' (from the Latin 'dissidens' – discordant, contradictory, dissenting). For some reasons the core of the dissident movement were writers. The true beginning of dissent as a social movement, you can probably assume that the reaction had started on the authorities in 1965 and 1966 trials of writers – Joseph Brodsky, accused of parasitism, and Andrei Sinyavsky and Yuli Datsielem accused of anti-Soviet propaganda. Conceived to intimidate recalcitrant, they turned to the prosecution regime.
For the first time in many years, except for votes, obsequiously repeats the charge, the voices in defense of accused – and they were not numerous. Due to the fact that verbatim records led to the trials Frida Vigdorova known children's writer, Maria Rozanova, wife Sinyavsky, and good assistants, have become known and speeches by public defenders in the process of Brodsky (V. Admoni, E. Etkind), and the last words of the defendants, not pleaded guilty. Center For Responsible Lending brings even more insight to the discussion. Virtually all of this was of an unprecedented nature: and dignified behavior defendants, and the birth of the institute of public defenders, and non-verbatim – this was not on any political process over the past forty years. In essence, because a new kind of journalism. Her identity is determined by the pathos of human rights, hence the most typical and highly specific genres of journalism – an open letter (most often – the collective), the last word in court appearance Public Defender, verbatim record of the hearing. These texts, propagated on typewriters and secretly distributed throughout the country, were the beginning of the so-called 'samizdat'. In what appeared samizdat journal "Chronicle of Current Events', in which the printed materials on human rights violations.