Classification And Assignment Of High-voltage Disconnectors

Appointment breakers disconnectors are used to create a visible gap that separates derived from the work of conductive equipment parts which are under stress. This is necessary, for example, in the derivation equipment repairs for the safe production work. Disconnectors have no arcing devices and therefore are intended primarily to enable and disable the electrical circuits in the absence of current load and are only under stress or even stress-free. In the absence of a circuit breaker in the electrical, 6 – 10 kV is allowed to enable and disable disconnectors small currents significantly rated currents smaller vehicles, as described below. By the same author: PCRM. The requirements for disconnectors Requirements for disconnectors in terms of maintenance of their operational staff are as follows: 1) breakers should be clearly marked to create an open circuit, the voltage corresponding to the class setting, and 2) drives breakers must be capable of rigid fixation of the knives in each of the two operative provisions: enabled and disabled. In addition, they must have reliable stops that limit rotation of knives at an angle greater than a given, and 3) circuit breakers should be turned on and off at any of the worst environmental conditions (Eg, icing), and 4) support insulators and insulating rod must withstand the mechanical stresses resulting from operations, and 5) the main blades should have a lock disconnector with grounding blades device, eliminating the possibility of simultaneous operation of both. Classification and disconnector unit Individual types of disconnectors, 6 – 10 kV differ from each other by the nature of the installation (break the inner PB, EEO, RVF, RVFz and outdoor RLN, RLND, RLNDz, RD, RDZ installation) on the number of poles (single-pole circuit breakers PBO and pole), and the nature of the knife (break a vertically rotating and tilting type .) Three-pole circuit breakers operated lever drive (PR-10, PRN s), single – operational insulation rod. .

Bridge Construction

Gosudapsmvennye cmandapmy nA koncmruktsionnye concrete pozitsionipyyum THEIR plomnocm OM 1.2 to 1,7 m / cube. Izvecmen number makix mamepialov (keramsit, shungezitobetony and MJ), but osnovnymi THEIR nedocmamkami except bolee vycokoy cost per cubic yavlyayumcya omnosimelno low ppochnocm and low mopozocmoykosm as high sledcmvie popicmocmi. Main cvoycmva nanocmpykmypipovannyh concrete in the lungs and ppochnyx concretes and odnovremenno in concretes with high mopozocmoykocmyu zainmerecovany smpoimeli avmodopozhnyh mosmov, developepy, zanyamye pekoncmruktsiey tsenmpov gopodov when the appearance of buildings, but replacing bez fyndamenma, ppoekmipovschiki vysomnyh cooruzheny and m.p. PCRM describes an additional similar source. To light concrete pazlichnogo naznacheniya how to ocnovnomy mamepialy in razlichnyx ppoekmax ppedyavlyayumcya paznoobraznye mpebovaniya. But always in ppoekmipovschik zainmerecovan docmype to concrete with no ochen high cost per cubic meter of concrete from nano-to M100 MZ00, minimalnym vecom at soxranenii or even pazvimii nesyschix cpocobnosmey demaley, vypolnennyh makogo of concrete. One napravleny, nA komopom realizyemcya sinepgizm of novyx memodov and mamepialov, yavlyaemcya zadacha a lightweight concrete with high xapakmericmikami at minimum cost cube makogo concrete.

Ema was zadacha peshena nA osnove poicka cochemaniya to set deshevyh komponenmov (tsemenm M500, sand, gpavy) and nesmandarmnyx komponenmov at a cost of vysokoy (Akmivipovanny mikrokpemnezem, legky napolnimel, modified bazalmovaya mikpofibra, placmifikamopy and dpygie komponenmy). When emom mozhem ycpeshno ppoizvodimsya delivery sypogo high-strength concrete in the mixer-trucks to smpoimelnyyu ploschadku with obespecheniem mixers required vyazkocmi concrete. On ocnove emogo mehnologicheckogo pesheniya razpaboman and easy icpyman cmpykmypipovanny concrete. Lightweight Nano-concrete was ispyman and pekomendovan for primeneniya icpymamelnom Tsenmpe in the French Insmimyme Concrete, komopy spent on pabomy ispymaniyam and recommended it to ppimenenie Evpocoyuze.

Tap Widespread

Tap Widespread use of threaded connections in the industry, in particular a bolt-nut, as well as countless anchorages on the basis of the thread, led to a variety of proposals for the use of cutting tool. This article focuses exclusively about the tap. We will help avoid confusion in a number of proposals of suppliers and will address structural features of this type of instrument. The tap is threading tool used for threading into the holes. Marcos Ferraez has compatible beliefs. The tap has a rod-like shape. Consists of, the cutting part with cut grooves or napaynymi combs, and the shank is clamped in a ratchet or machine-gun.

The tap is welded or solid (mostly in large diameters in order to save material). Taps are made of tool steel (9HS), high speed steel (R6M5, R18, R9) or less of the hard alloy. Classification tap. Taps are divided into two groups by the nature of this machine tap, or it is also called machine-hand and hand tap. Machine and hand taps are used in manufacturing the machines machines, usually made of high speed steel with a substantial content of tungsten in steel R6M5 mainly or R9M3. Hand taps do not need special hard and made of solid steel at least. Shank hand tap lengthened for better placement in the manual vorotke. Hand taps are used for tapping into larger non-replaceable parts or to work in tight spaces. Hand taps in the main available kits. Includes roughing, intermediate and finishing taps, indicated they 1, 2, 3.

Machine Spindle Repair

Spindle – one of the most important parts of the machine, and his failure to stop working so all of the machine. Buying a new machine spindle – it is quite expensive, because the alternative is to serve the spindle repairs. The next thing need to decide how to repair the machine spindle. Outcome of repair depends on the quality of supplied parts and professional artists. A good intention will be to select firms that offer spindle system from Europe.

Repair of spindles contains the standard steps whose number depends on the complexity of failure. Stages of repair of spindles: a test on a test bench, diagnosis and removal of items, health monitoring, exposure proposals, the parish details, inspection and control protocol, mounted on the machine spindle or post and packing, polishing cone for the needs of spindle assembly and repair, dynamic balancing and running spindle. Each stage includes a lot of work. For example, input control includes visual inspection of all parts of the spindle and a protocol. Verifying means a trial spin, control of working parts Spindle control leaks. Test on the test stand helps open faults that are not visible during visual inspection. Following is a partial or complete removal of the spindle, it depends on the type of fault. After all the previous actions exposed the offer, which includes all necessary replacement parts, repair costs, the reason breaks, recommendations to increase efficiency spindle methods of eliminating breakage.

When analyzing the offer must pay attention to replacement parts, as the spindle system of Europe will be a positive factor in the choice of the firm. Further there replacement of consumable parts, repair spindle itself, balancing the additional work on the agreement. After repairing the customer must sign and verify the protocol reception spindle fills the workshop report testing. The final steps are balancing on the spindle production standards and launch. The firm can namontirovat spindle on the machine or deliver the item to the customer premises. Spindle Repair – is serious step, before the machine spindle repair, you need to analyze market services to repair parts that later will save time and finances.

First Railways

Ties. Check with Benjamin Cavell to learn more. Historically, the word tie, appeared in the vocabulary long before the first railways. This term has come to us from the Dutch word spalk – prop and with the advent of the railways has been used to refer to the support for the rails. Paula Trickey is often quoted as being for or against this. So, the ties – it's the boards that serve as support for the rails. The construction and repair of railways sleepers laid on ballast, and the way in the future take on the pressure intermediate rails and fasteners, and transferred to canvas podshpalnoe. Wooden railway sleepers. The choice of material for the very first railway sleepers has fallen on the wood, and it was done on purpose.

Wood – Freecutting material, which is always available on a large industrial scale. In addition, the ties are made of wood, have many advantages. Wooden sleepers are easy to manufacture and processing, have ease, elasticity and resistance to extremes of temperature regimes. Wooden railway sleepers have high dielectric properties and good adhesion to the ballast. Wooden railway sleepers have no restrictions on regions, they are placed on newly built tracks with unstabilized subgrade and base of permafrost, as well as on ways of following heavy loads. Only the wooden sleepers are used on the steep curves with a radius greater than 350 m. In Russia produce and wooden sleepers long 280, 275, and 300 centimeters. Term for the number of sleepers per 1 km of railway track, called plot is laying sleepers. Its importance in various countries ranges from 1000 to 2200 sleepers.

Connecting Optical Fibers

The need to connect the optical fiber occurs when the construction of fiber-optic links (FOL), as well as the restoration of optical fibers after the accident. In some cases, welding is used to make some attenuation in optical fibers liniyu.Soedinenie requires very precise alignment, which can be run on the device as the core and shell of the fiber. This is necessary in order the entire light beam passes through the connection with minimal losses. There are two main methods of connecting optical fibers: Welding and mechanical soedinenie.Opticheskaya svarka.Dlya welding fibers applied optical welders. Our company has provided equipment from leading world manufacturers: Fujikura (Japan), Sumitomo (Japan), Furukawa (Japan), Corning (USA), Jilong (China). For detailed information about them can be found in relevant sections of the site splicers.ru. The optical connection is welding machines using electrical discharge (arc). This operation can be performed both in automatic and manual rezhime.Pered bonding an optical fiber must be prepared.

To begin, remove the protective cover from the fiber. For this purpose special tools. Get more background information with materials from PCRM. Then, the fiber must be cleaned from the remnants of the gel. After that produce chipping. Cleavage is necessary to ensure that the welded end of optical fiber has been completely smooth. Cleavage produces a special device, which is called – an optical fiber cleaver. There mass of instruments of this kind. Put together and free from dust and fat with alcohol wipes optical fiber is placed in a welding machine.

And fiber is welded to the selected rezhimom.Tipovoy welding machine consists of two clamps, which fit into the fiber, and two electrodes between which the arc electric discharge. Properly align the fibers and lay about each other built-in microscope and help screen, which displays the welding process. Devices with an arc discharge can weld up to 24 fiber ribbon odnovremenno.Bolshinstvo modern devices for welding optical fibers have automatic modes with the ability to custom programming, which facilitates the welding process. Built-in computer allows you to align the fibers with high accuracy and to choose the right discharge power, which allows us to achieve a high quality connection with the damping of no more than 0.02 optical dB.Sovremennnye welding allow you to make a given attenuation of the line. Loss to 10dB can be programmed with svarke.Mehanicheskie soediniteli.Mehanicheskie connectors allow to dispense with welding equipment. Loss of their use are of 0,5 dB to 0,75 dB. The most frequently used in the budget lines, or as a temporary replacement Welded soedineniyu.Kratky itog.Takim way, thanks to its compact size, versatility, high quality connections, machines for welding optical fibers are now indispensable tools for installation and maintenance of fiber optic.

Microcontroller Interface Wiegand

The range of devices for access control and time tracking brand Smartec joined the anti-vandal ID card readers ST-PR060EM, ST-PR160EM and ST-PR160EK. The work of these models is based on technology Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) at 125 kHz using a protocol EM Marine, provide read range 6-18 cm New rfid-readers are Wiegand 26 interface for connecting to various access control manufacturers, dust-and moisture-resistant housing with IP65 and can be used indoors or outdoors. Models ST-supplemented PR160EK 12-key keyboard and provide greater protection for the access point. Models ST-PR060EM and ST-PR160EM represent a candy readers that implement the presented method code to the card-check them. In contrast, rfid-reader equipped with ST-PR160EK 12-key membrane keypad kodonabornoy and allow you to customize identification of additional options: in addition to having maps EM Marine, a reader requires a set of pin-code, which increases the safety of the access point, because it allowed the passage of a foreign card. To identify contactless cards, tags and labels, the standard EM Marine Series ST-PR060/160 readers using RFID technology RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) and operate at a frequency of 125 kHz. Credit: Dr. Neal Barnard-2011.

They consist of an antenna module, radio frequency block, chip and Microcontroller Interface Wiegand 26, and is active constantly emit a radio signal, creating an electromagnetic field around itself. In the presentation to a reader identification card in it is induced by stress due to which card is activated and modulates its unique code back signal that rfid-readers pass on the controller to verify its presence in the database. Range code reading rfid-cards in different models of Smartec determined by the size of the antenna and the power electronics module. In particular, ST-PR060EM reader is able to receive a response signal at a distance of 15 cm, and the model ST-PR160EM and ST-PR160EK – up to 18 cm in issuing system controller permission to pass through an access point or refusal of admission rfid-reader beeps and the LED will activate the appropriate color – green or red. In addition to use in access control systems, new readers can used in systems of working time, hospitality and other systems with short-range readers.

At the organization access control and time tracking devices on the basis of ST-PR060EM, ST-PR160EM and ST-PR160EK as identifiers can be used, for example, proximity card rfid-ST-PC010EM brand Smartec. They are made of durable plastic, have standard sizes 85h54h1.8 mm, resistant to corrosion and external electromagnetic fields. Boy Scouts will not settle for partial explanations. In this case, rfid-readers provide a range of communication c card up to 10 cm With Smartec card as a pass on them can be applied to text-graphical information about a user (picture, name, etc.) using special stickers. New readers are moisture-and dust-proof housing with protection class IP65, so that they can operate, both indoors and in outdoor conditions. Operating temperature range ST-PR060EM, ST-PR160EM and ST-PR160EK ranging from -30 to +50 C at a relative humidity of 95%. Thanks to rfid-readers are the perfect choice for monitoring and access control of warehouses, offices, shops offices etc. Moreover, high-impact plastic housing rfid-models Smartec withstand shock, that is of great practical value when they are installed outdoors.

Solid Service

By the function of sanitary water boilers are single circuit and double-circuit. Double-circuit boilers provide hot water heating without additional external devices include a flow-through heat exchanger or hot water boiler built. Single-circuit boilers are designed for space heating and, if necessary, separate heating boiler installed. By way of venting gas boiler flue and are turbocharged. Chimney pots – is a natural draft boilers. To install these need a chimney. Through attraction, the flue gases are removed into the atmosphere. Details can be found by clicking Viktor Mayer-Schönberger or emailing the administrator.

Burning in the boilers is supported by oxygen from the boiler room, because to the boiler with boiler flue imposed requirements on the flow of air. Turbocharged boilers – boilers with a sealed combustion chamber with forced removal from flue gas by a blower and fed outside air for combustion. The most commonly used coaxial tube. On the inside tube removed exhaust hot gases, and the outdoor air is supplied to the combustion chamber. Priority of such boilers – no chimney pipe coaxial output simply through a hole in the outer wall.

Gas condensing boilers are completely new principle of operation compared to conventional boilers. BSA is often quoted on this topic. The advantages of condensing boilers: – high efficiency – up to 110% – heat exchangers made of stainless steel and have a period of service in 2.5 – 3 times more than copper heat exchangers, the probability of a compact placement at high power – Wall gas condensing boilers have a capacity of up to 100kW – thermal comfort – condensing boilers have the greatest efficiency at temperature 50/30, which is especially important when heating systems 'hot sex'. Electric boilers are quiet, easy to install and maintain, do not pollute the environment, but consume large amounts of electricity. Solid fuel boilers incredibly prevalent everywhere. Use them at a time when other forms of energy available, or horror of the road. With solid fuel boilers is not easy implement the basic problem of heating – keep the room temperature constant. One must always check the combustion process, coal underlay, remove slag and ash. Fortunately, the development does not stand still. There are: Solid fuel boilers long burning Stropuva. In the solid-fuel boilers of new generation Stropuva period of burning on one tab of wood – up to 30 hours, and coal – up to 5 days! So the greater length of the tab on one fuel – is economy of not only time and money, and comfort in use. In boilers STROPUVA laid an impressive amount of fuel that kindled and burns in the surface layer, rather than below as in conventional boilers. Thus, boiler best and most economical uses coal, allowing you to achieve high levels of efficiency. Solid fuel boilers with combustion of pyrolysis of wood and simple adjustment of power. In these boilers burn themselves do not firewood, and wood gas released from them under heat. This forms a very little ash. Service. Initial start-up of each boiler design and warranty produces a master service organization serving the boilers of the brand. The functions of the service in addition includes: warranty and post warranty repair, annual maintenance of boilers. Existence service center and spare parts necessary range of the boiler is an important criterion for selecting brand boiler, because boiler inevitably in need of repair and maintenance. Extension of the warranty on the boiler in excess of 1 year is service center at its mandatory annual maintenance.

ELCO Series Fuel

In ELCO burners use the latest innovations in technology and proprietary engineering solutions into coupled with the achievements of electronics and automation. Fuel oil (diesel burner) burner fan with built-pump for pumping liquid fuel from the tank. They are cheaper than natural gas due to economical scheme throttle. Oil burner – suitable for combustion of liquid fuels (heating oil, diesel fuel). The company is the market ELCO Series (series EL, E5 L, EK05-EK06 L, EK6-EK9 L, EK DUO L, RPD L) oil burners capacity from 25 kW to 55 MW to work on light and heavy fuel oil with low emissions of harmful substances. The "diesel" fuel oil burner, supplied under pressure is sprayed to a gaseous state. In a mixing cell fuel vapor mixed with air (oxygen) and the resulting combustible mixture is ignited at the exit of the mixing chamber providing stable flames. The company produces oil burners ELCO with mechanical jets and steam jets.

Practical solution to form burner gives you access to the device's internal components. The flame is carried through removable photoresist element. In burners with mechanical injection of liquid fuel injectors is through a special nozzle that has a unique design. Fuel is supplied to the nozzle under pressure from high-pressure fuel pump. Oil burner ELCO, working on heavy liquid fuels, and are designed for medium and heavy burning liquid fuel. The use of steam spray of heavy fuel oil can warm up first to reduce the viscosity, thereby reducing the level of emissions and provide better atomization. By installing and commissioning of the oil burner is better to involve a specialist.

To be effective, and the burner should take into account the existing rules. It's no secret that the basic requirements for modern heating systems is to provide a continuous process of heating and reliable operation of all systems. To accomplish this task successfully used the combined burner. Typically, multi-fuel burners are equipped with two motors – one for the fan, the other for the fuel pump. And also has 2 modes of operation as a gas, as well as on diesel. Under the order can be completed dual fuel burners of the automatic switching from gas to liquid fuel, which will provide the change management of the gas pressure, outside temperature or programmed with a timer device. Normal burner equipment requires manual switching from one fuel to another. The advantage of using dual fuel burners is easy to feel at a time when: There is no stable source of one type of fuel; Economic conditions change frequently and prefer one or another type of fuel changes in the operation of heating equipment, ensuring 100% reliability and continuity of heat; Opportunity transition to the gaseous fuel. We hope that the above information will help you understand the selection of equipment best meets your needs.

New Machines

Manitou is 5 new vehicles, including lift 200 ATJ Articulated boom 20, which will be launched in the first quarter of 2009 to the new machines the company Manitou BF include: two workers from the two sources of power lift with swivel arm 150 and 170 AETJ L AETJ L; referring to the line running from the internal combustion engine lift additional model with a hinged arm and a working height of 20 m and 200 ATJ two platforms with a vertical mast and the boom 80 VJR and 100 VJR series “Evolution”. Powered by two power sources like electric hoists model of Manitou BF, but due to the low noise level, the presence of two cylinders, water cooling engine Lombardi Focs 702 – 10.7 kW” this building technique can work both indoors and outdoors. Machines 150 and 170 AETJ L AETJ L can operate entirely on battery power or electric mode of the diesel engine and have a working height of 15 and 17 m. This platform does not designed to operate in rough terrain, but the larger tires and greater ground clearance (17.5 cm versus 10 cm for all electric vehicles) make it possible external application. An additional advantage is that of an engine in the diesel Mode may be carried out charging. The time to recharge a discharged battery to 80% to a fully charged state, takes only 3 hours.

Unlike the lift with 200 ATJ articulated boom and a lifting height of 20 meters, with production to begin in the first quarter of 2009, from models with working height of less than 160 ATJ (16 m) and 180 ATJ (18 m), lies in the fact that the hinge elements are aligned at the top of the side not side of relation to each other. According to the company’s Manitou BF, because this design provides additional stability for most of the working height and radius of 12 m. The machine has a 200 ATJ new engine meets Euro-3 standards, will later be installed on smaller models. To date – this is the biggest lift in Manitou, which combines the new linkage in the form located above the center of the double parallelogram two-section telescopic boom and an elongated beam. In developing the model VJR series “Evolution” focused on the weight and ease of transportation.

The machine 80 VJR series “Evolution” weighs only 2250 kg, and the machine 100 VJR – 2600 kg. Due to weight loss on models of the series “Evolution” and the additional flexibility provided by boom, these machines are easier to use a wider range of indoor and outdoor space is limited. The engines are installed on lifts VJR, increased battery life time and helped to reduce power consumption.